• Infection with SARS-CoV-2 and development of COVID-19 disease is associated with a deleterious effect in renal function and structure.
  • This would be expected to potentially alter the molecular composition of urine.
  • Since COVID-19 evolved in 2019, there have been numerous reports of acute kidney injury (AKI) associated with this infection 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8.
  • The incidence of AKI in COVID-19 patients has been estimated to range from about 27-50+% 9,10.
  • Early in the pandemic, several groups noted a correlation of disease severity, hospitalization, and intensive care admissions with increased risk for developing AKI 11, 12.
  • The contribution of cardiopulmonary dysfunction, renal hypoperfusion, and/or multidrug therapy leading to the development AKI has been well-known for decades prior to COVID-19 13. However, the role of renal viral infection in the development of AKI was uncertain.
  • Our ongoing studies, with colleagues at Carilion Clinic in Roanoke, VA, are focused on using our Rametrix® Technology, Inc. technology to predict the severity of COVID19 infection when patients are hospitalized and to see if our technology can predict the development of Long COVID19.


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  2. Chen YT, Shao SC, Lai EC, Hung MJ, Chen YC. Mortality rate of acute kidney injury in SARS, MERS, and COVID‑19 infection: A systematic review and meta‑analysis. Crit Care 2020; 24: 439
  3. Cheng Y, Luo R, Wang K, Zhang M, Wang Z, Dong L, et al. Kidney disease is associated with in-hospital death of patients with COVID-19. Kidney Int 2020; 97: 829–838
  4. Ng JH, Bijol V, Sparks MA, Sise ME, Izzedine H, Jhaveri KD: Pathophysiology and pathology of acute kidney injury in patients with COVID-19. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2020; 27: 365–376
  5. Pei G, Zhang Z, Peng J, Liu L, Zhang C, Yu C, et al. Renal involvement and early prognosis in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. J Am Soc Nephrol 2020; 31: 1157–1165, 2020
  6. Richardson S, Hirsch JS, Narasimhan M, Crawford JM, McGinn T, Davidson KW, et al. Presenting characteristics, comorbidities, and outcomes among 5700 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in the New York City area. JAMA 2020; 323: 2052–2059
  1. Sharma P, Uppal NN, Wanchoo R, Shah HH, Yang Y, Parikh R, et al. COVID-19–associated kidney injury: A case series of kidney biopsy findings. J Am Soc Nephrol 2020; 31: 1948–1958
  2. Su H, Yang M, Wan C, Yi L-X, Tang F, Zhu H-Y, et al. Renal histopathological analysis of 26 postmortem findings of patients with COVID-19 in China. Kidney Int 2020; 98: 219–227, 2020
  3. Hirsch JS, Ng JH, Ross DW, Sharma P, Shah HH, Barnett RL, et al. Acute kidney injury in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Kidney Int 2020; 98: 209–218, 2020
  4. Mohamed MM, Lukitsch I, Torres-Ortiz AE, Walker JB, Varghese V, Hernandez-Arroyo CF. Acute kidney injury associated with coronavirus disease 2019 in urban New Orleans. Kidney360 2020; 1: 614–622
  5. Fisher M, Neugarten J, Bellin E, Yunes M, Stahl L, Johns TS, et al. AKI in hospitalized patients with and without COVID-19: A comparison study. J Am Soc Nephrol 2020; 31: 2145–2157
  1. Moledina DG, Simonov M, Yamamoto Y, Alausa J, Arora T, Biswas A, et al. The association of COVID-19 with acute kidney injury independent of severity of illness: A multicenter cohort study. Am J Kidney Dis 2021; 77: 490–499.e1
  2. Murugan R, Kellum JA: Acute kidney injury: what’s the prognosis? Nat Rev Nephrol. 2011; 7(4):209-217